Composting Process Basic Points:

Composting is a traditional process and many key points are there to look after during manure making process.

Compost Feed to maintain Nutritional balance of manure:

Whole composting process majorly depends upon the kind of input we are using for decomposing. A balance of both green waste as well as brown waste needs to be maintained to achieve high quality manure. In green waste we mean plants cuttings, organic waste, kitchen food waste and in brown waste we mean dry pint leaves, prunings, dry flowers etc. This kind of pile will help to maintain CN ratio which is very important for composting ratio.

Providing smallest possible waste particle size to culture for fast processing:

Cutting the waste pile in smallest possible size reduces work for microorganisms to work on, which in turn expedites the decomposing process. Also the small size particles can have free flow of air and oxygen to the deepest level of pile for better composting.

To Maintain Moisture Levels

Although organic food waste material contains some level of moisture in it, but still we may need to maintain water level in compost pile as the microorganisms will need moisture to survive.

Oxygen level also very important

Presence of oxygen and to maintain its level is also important for bio culture to survive or to decompose the particles. So keeping the pile proper aerated or to maintain the proper oxygen level is very important for proper composting of waste. For example few people puts long pieces of plastic pipes in waste piles so that through these hollow pipes oxygen will keep flowing inside the waste to deepest levels.

Raise in temperature levels

As we all know the microorganisms produces heat in order to decompose the waste particles, and they also require a certain temperature level which they themselves generates for optimal processing. Maintenance of this level of heat in compost pile will expedite the process, and we do not need to put any extra effort for this as looking after all above four basic points will automatically achieve such required temperature and good environment for bio culture to perform best way.

 

Different Composting Process:

  1. “Vermicomposting” Way of Composting process

In the “Vermicomposting” composting process, we need to put worms in waste bins where these worms eat waste food and other bio degradable organic waste of horticulture activities like plant leaves, dry flowers etc. Break down process of bio degradable items into  manure by these worms is called casting. Vermicomposting bins and red worms are easily available in market to purchase and also can be done under DIY process. To decompose large pile of approx. 1/2 pound organic waste around 1K worms will be sufficient.

Vermicomposting method of composting process to convert organic waste into manure takes around 2 – 3 months and carries all necessary nutrients or growth of plants.

Points to be taken care in Vermicomposting method of composting process :

  • Vermicomposting way of making manure is appropriate in individual houses, hotels, resorts, Banquets etc.
  • Vermicomposting should be taught in our educational institutions to inculcate the teachings about environment conservation and recycling of waste to our school children.
  • Red worms need proper environment to survive and for processing of decomposing like we need to maintain correct moisture and to keep them needed with sufficient organic waste.
  • Worms are very sensitive of extremely cold or hot temperature environment so we should maintain proper conditions for worms like temp. In between 40 degree to 55 degrees and also we should keep away the verimicomposting bin from direct sunlight as that will also damage them.
  • Also if possible, we can create vermicomposting room which is best and easy to control temperature in both hot and cold weather.

2.  In-vessel Composting process

This method of composting is suitable for handling large chunks of waste and is also able to handle any sort of bio degradable waste like: veg and non veg food scraps, plant leaves etc. In in-vessel way of composting a mechanical controlled Brim made up of any alloy is being used where the temperature conditions are controlled artificially either with electricity or solar etc. The turning of waste and shredding also is done with the help of electricity inside a drum or brim like vessel where these are built in many sizes as per the waste volume.

Composting process takes few days time in this in-vessel composting.

Points to be taken care in in-vessel composting process:

  • Size of vessel can be customised as per the need of size of waste pile batches, we can make small size brims like for small restaurants, schools etc. and bigger size vessels or brim can also be made for bulk waste generators.
  • As the temperature is controlled by electrical means so it is very easy to use these vessels machines in any weather conditions.
  • As the whole composting process happens inside closed vessel, so the bad odour can be controlled and very low volume of leachate is produced.
  • As this composting process is done mechanically so it can be expensive as will be needing machines and electricity.
  • Lesser labour and place is involved as in-vessel composting process happens inside controlled vessel brim.